X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD)
Measurement of amount of retained austenite in hardened steels based on the integrated intensity of several austenite and ferrite diffraction peaks, according to ASTM E975.
Identification of crystallographic phases present in a material and their quantification (Rietveld method) in both bulk (conventional incidence) and thin film (GIXRD) materials. Quantification of crystallite size and micro-stresses based on the width of the diffraction peaks.
Measurement of superficial residual stresses due to machining, forming processes, thermal treatment, welding processes, additive manufacturing, thin film deposition etc. Measurement as a function of depth by material elimination with electrolytic polishing. Stress analysis usually with sen2psi method; measurement both in PSi and OMEGA mode.
Measurement of the distribution of crystallographic orientations in bulk materials and thin films. Texture originates from forming processes of metallic materials, as well as after thin film deposition, in casting processes, etc.